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Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Since theorists first began formulating concepts of intelligence in the early 20th century, there have been many differing views and intense debates surrounding what constitutes intelligence. Howard Gardner first proposed his idea of multiple intelligences in his 1984 work, Frames of Mind. His theory is built on eight distinct criteria for defining intelligence, and he outlined seven relatively independent or autonomous intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. He later added an eighth intelligence: naturalistic.

This entry first looks at the development of the concept of intelligence and the criteria Gardner used to identify the eight intelligences. It then describes each of these intelligences before looking at the effects of the theory on schools, the wider culture, and viewpoints on individual abilities and talents. ...

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