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Underground Economies

Since time immemorial, women and men have been conducting business in the underground economy away from the scrutiny of government and regulatory systems. Examples of such activities range from prostitution to activities as seemingly innocent as selling lemonade and babysitting. Unlike the formal economy, which is taxed and included in the gross national product, the underground economy, a segment of which includes the informal economy or informal sector, is not monitored, regulated, or taxed by the government. Usually fueled by word of mouth, the underground economy is driven by cash transactions, a practice that allows for violating price controls, ignoring market edicts and rules, and even perpetrating acts of violence.

Food and drink have been a central part of the underground market economy since ancient times. ...

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