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Boycotts are a form of noncooperative or civil resistance actions undertaken by individuals or collective groups to sway the behavior of the target entity by coaxing other individuals to abstain from participation in certain economic, political, or social activities with that target entity. For instance, consumer boycotts involve individual consumers in an economic marketplace refraining from making certain purchases from the target. Although larger organizations are also urged to participate in such boycotts, the focus of a consumer boycott is principally on the individual consumer. The goals of a consumer boycott may range from demand for lower prices to improvement in the quality of goods, environmental concerns, or labor union recognition. In addition, the need to sway consumers requires boycotts to engage in lobbying efforts, ...

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