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Odds ratios (OR) compare the probability of an outcome occurring to absence when exposed to treatment/dependent variables. The OR provides effect size information on the relative odds of two groups. Common uses of OR include medical research and cross-sectional studies. The ratio is easy to calculate and easy to interpret when written appropriately. Probability and odds build the foundation of the OR calculation. Probability describes the chance of one specified outcome happening as a percentage of the total outcomes. Odds represent the ratio of the probability of an event occurring divided by the probability of the event not occurring. In addition to presenting an outcome, OR foundationally contributes to logistical regression, enabling researchers to model categorical variables. This entry presents an overview of OR ...

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