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Mass communication focuses on the study of communication processes involving the mass media. This includes traditional media such as television programs, newspapers, and movies, as well as some applications of newer, more interactive media such as digital games and social networking platforms. Research often examines the effects of media, patterns of media content, the interpretation of media messages by audiences, and less frequently, it examines the characteristics of the producer or production environment that contribute to media content (e.g., the gender of key production staff or their country of origin). The three research methods used most frequently in the field are cross-sectional surveys, experiments, and quantitative content analysis. Other methods include longitudinal surveys and open-ended data collection methods such as focus group interviews. Some research ...

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