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The choice of an appropriate statistical test depends on the type of research questions being asked and the type of hypothesis being tested, and is closely contingent on key factors such as the type of outcome data being analyzed and the number of experimental groups to be compared. For example, if a researcher is interested in testing whether there is a significant difference between unpaired or independent groups for quantitative or numeric data, when there are only two groups involved in the comparison, parametric Student’s t-test is generally used if data are normally distributed. Alternatively, nonparametric Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney rank sum test is widely applied if data are not normal. To check the normality of numeric data, a graphical method can be used in which the ...

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