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Effect size is a way of reporting the strength of a relationship between two or more variables. In terms of quantitative comparisons, it is simply the extent to which two groups differ from each other concerning the grouping variable. Whether results are significant or not depends on the sample size; however, effect size of the results is independent of the number of research units. Thus, effect size is not influenced by the size of the samples.

Consider an intervention, such as a new book on research methods that is intended to be more useful than an earlier volume on the same topic. The questions arise whether this book is actually better than the old one, and if so, how much better. These questions are important when ...

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