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Fixed coding refers to coding approaches that involve predefined coding categories that are collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive. These categories are logically derived by researchers based on a priori empirical knowledge or preexisting theories. It is mostly used in quantitative research, where data coding and analysis are deductively driven. The goal is to test researchers’ preexisting propositions or theories against patterns and relationships as shown in the empirical data. It can also be a way of testing the emergent categories from qualitative research such as thematic analysis. Developing a fixed coding scheme requires that researchers know prior to analysis what they are looking to test in the study. This entry examines the two requirements for creating coding categories in fixed coding (collectively exhaustive and mutually ...

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