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The z score is a standard score widely used in statistics. The normal distribution is one of the central requirements of statistical testing. Most statistical tests assume normal distribution in the sample data, as distribution of means is roughly normal and does not lead to major statistical errors. One important feature of normal distribution is that it uses raw scores derived from a sample. However, using raw scores does not enable researchers to conduct all types of statistical analyses. Raw scores only allow researchers to compare the scores within the same sample. Consider the following scenario: A communication researcher wants to compare communication accommodation between group members and examine whether it differs between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. The researcher collects data from two different samples. ...

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