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One of the key first steps of a research project is developing the design of the project. While experiments can be conducted in myriad ways, the two primary methods in which project designs are carried out in communication and other disciplines are within-subject designs and between-subject designs. Within-subjects design, which is the topic of this entry, focuses on studying the effects of treatments to every individual within a single group over a period of time. This entry further defines within-subjects design before providing hypothetical situations to highlight the use and effect of this design, along with some modifications. The advantages and disadvantages inherent in within-subjects design and the implications of using that particular design are also considered.

In a within-subjects design (also referred to as a ...

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