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Marker variables are variables that are used to indicate some other feature. Often, the variable of interest is not directly observable; instead, a marker believed to indicate the existence or level of the variable is used. For example, often the use of biological gender (male and female) is used to represent differences in socialization that a child experiences. Consider a person stating that he or she has the “flu.” If one asks them, “How do you know that?” the person may list a number of symptoms (markers)—raised temperature, body aches, fatigue—all of which are indicative of someone infected with an influenza virus. The person has not directly tested or provided direct proof that the condition is the flu, but the set of markers that ...

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