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The purpose of this entry is to explain what measurement is and the role that the concept of validity plays in ensuring that measurements are sound. Several ways of assessing validity will be presented, and the relevance and significance of theory will be discussed for its centrality in evaluating a measure’s validity.

What Is Measurement?

We make and use measurements all the time: We measure time with a clock, a stopwatch, or a calendar; we measure distance whenever we drive; we measure weight when we buy products by their weight or whenever we weigh ourselves. Sometimes our measurements are more complicated: At some stores, we learn how much a product costs per pound or per fluid ounce; in these cases, the resulting measure is obtained by division, ...

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