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The p value refers to the probability for the observed empirical result or more extreme results to occur under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. Suppose a researcher predicts women are more empathic than men. To test the prediction, the researcher establishes a null hypothesis claiming no gender difference in levels of empathy, collects empirical data, computes a statistic representing the magnitude of gender difference in the sample, and examines the extent to which the statistic deviates from the null prediction. As the statistic is located farther away from the nil null, the likelihood for the given result to occur declines assuming that the null hypothesis is true, ultimately providing evidence with which to reject the null. This entry introduces the p value ...

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