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Drums are an essential aspect of African culture. There are a plethora of drums and drumming styles that emanated from Africa and emerged within the culture of Africans in North America. The presence of numerous African drums and drumming styles is indicative of the ability of enslaved Africans to retain their culture and pass it on to their descendants and/or the ability of their descendants to reclaim aspects of their culture that were dislocated during the enslavement and oppression of Africans (Maafa). Although this entry focuses on conga and djembe drums, there are a plethora of drums and drumming styles that emerged within the culture of North America and have their origins in traditional African culture. For example, the bata (Yoruba) and the ...

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