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For centuries, European peoples of differing ethnicities have tended to view themselves in ways that conveyed implicit hierarchical and historical relationships with each other. Underlying such judgments has been the belief that the White race is superior to all other races. Toward the end of the 18th century and continuing throughout the 19th century, the pseudoscientific concept of race and the belief in White superiority were developed systematically and put forward as a comprehensive doctrine that was used to justify White control over non-White peoples and White appropriation of land and other resources. Proponents included explorers, biologists, anthropologists, linguists, historians, physicians, and other scholars. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the use of the comparative research methodology was popularized. Its proponents, drawing on their ...

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