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The responsibilities of communal protection and defense were taught by the male elders in traditional Africa to male youths at the early age of 13 years. According to Chancellor Williams, the educational system included instruction that instilled and supported these values. Future Black Panther Party leaders Huey P. Newton and Bobby G. Seale learned these values from the older males in their families: Newton was taught pugilism skills, and Seale became proficient in hunting and firearm usage. The African retentions of male instruction and bonding provided the footings upon which Newton and Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) in Oakland, California, in October 1966.

Oakland and Black America

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton first met at Merritt College in Oakland, ...

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