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Although there exist numerous evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder (BD), a typically chronic condition marked by recurrent episodes of mania (and/or hypomania) and depression, effective clinical management of BD, including its three subtypes (bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder), remains complex. Given the episodic nature of the course of the disorder, the armamentarium of treatments for BD include both acute interventions, targeted toward the reduction of active mood symptoms or episodes, and also maintenance interventions for the prevention of mood symptom relapse or recurrence. Interventions for BD are further characterized according to whether they have mood-stabilizing effects, acting on symptoms of both mania and depression, or if they have more targeted, polarity-specific effects on mania or depression. Yet effective treatment is ...

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