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Neurocognitive Disorders: Gender and Sex Differences

Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) are clinical disorders characterized by core deficits in cognitive functioning, specifically in the areas of attention, learning, memory, and language. The categories of NCDs include delirium and mild and major NCD, with differing subtypes of etiology, such as Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal, traumatic brain injury, Huntington’s disease, HIV, substance/medication induced, and prion disease. Although NCDs can affect anyone, there are specific gender and sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology, and age of onset, as well as the social and emotional impact of the disease. In the discussion of these differences in this entry, sex refers to one’s biological status at birth, whereas gender refers to the characteristics a culture assigns to one’s biological status.

Etiology

Age represents the highest risk factor in the development ...

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