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Opioid use disorder is a serious problem worldwide. Complications abound and pose serious risks to the physical and emotional health of individuals and families. The total cost of this disorder in the United States, including health care costs, lost productivity, and the repercussions of crime, has been estimated at $28 billion annually. This entry discusses methadone and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), which is one of the most effective treatments for opioid addiction.

Historical Context

Methadone was developed in Germany in the late 1930s and was introduced to the United States by Eli Lilly and Company in 1947. In the face of the growing heroin epidemic in New York in the early 1960s, Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander conducted a three-phase research program using methadone as a maintenance ...

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