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There are many different kinds of intelligence (IQ) tests, both individually and group administered, and a search of the Mental Measurements Yearbook With Tests in Print under the general topic of “IQ tests” yields well over 100 entries of these assessments of intellectual functions. Clearly, mental ability tests are widely popular measures in the field of psychology and enjoy a rich tradition. The nature of IQ tests is diverse, and the contexts of their use are diverse as well. Most purport to be objective assessments of aptitude versus achievement. Controversies in the field of IQ testing relate to the degree to which past scholastic achievement influences results as well as potential bias. Of course, all tests include the concept of error variance, but bias differs ...

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