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The diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), specify a presenting complaint of difficulties with the quantity or quality of sleep. These difficulties occur in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, and/or early waking with failure to regain sleep. The sleep disruption must occur at least 3 days per week and cause significant distress or impairment for a minimum duration of 3 months. Depending on the diagnostic criterion, prevalence rates range from 4% to 48%. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that about 5.5 million outpatient visits with insomnia as a primary complaint occurred in the United States in 2010. However, only about 13% of those complaining of insomnia actually seek ...

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