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Individualism and Collectivism

The individualism-collectivism dimension has received much research attention in explaining cultural variations in self-vision, thinking, and the dominant orientation to social, relational, and behavioral differences. The two contrasting cultural orientations emphasize personal freedom and achievement. Individualism looks into personal accomplishments and achievements that help one to stand out or to establish oneself as individual, whereas collectivism emphasizes the embeddedness of individuals in a larger group that highly values conformity and discourages individuals from standing out. According to Hazel Rose Markus and Shinobu Kitayama, people from an individualistic culture have an independent view of the self as an entity that is distinct, autonomous, and self-contained. People from a collectivistic culture dominantly hold an interdependent view that the self is part of a larger social network that ...

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