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The hippocampus, a component of the brain, has long been associated with episodic/declarative memories (memories for experiences) and with the formation of spatial cognitive maps. More recently, it has been proposed that the hippocampus plays a critical role in relational representations. All of these roles require extensive integration of information, which parallels the potential for integration seen in exquisite studies of hippocampal anatomy. When selective subregions of the hippocampus are damaged, as is the case in a number of disorders and in aging, deficits may vary by subregion. The hippocampus is affected in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), ischemia, aging, and Cushing’s disease. It has also been implicated in a number of mental health disorders, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This entry details ...

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