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Gender Dysphoria: Epidemiology

Gender dysphoria (GD) refers to the distress that results from the incongruence between one’s experienced gender and one’s assigned gender. As defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), individuals of all ages can be diagnosed with GD. However, the criteria to meet the diagnosis are different for adolescents/adults and children. Gaining insight into the epidemiology—that is, the incidence of GD (the number of new cases in a given period) and the prevalence of GD (the proportion of cases in the population with GD at any given time)—is complex because large-scale national surveys hardly exist.

For the studies that did report on the incidence and prevalence of GD, validity is a matter of dispute for a number of reasons. The first ...

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