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Living with someone who has a mental health disorder is not easy. Most families struggle to cope when a relative is diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or any other kind of mental problem. Nonetheless, families differ in how they adjust and come to terms with the challenges that psychopathology in a loved one presents. Many of these differences are captured in the construct of expressed emotion, or EE. This entry describes the nature of EE, its measurement, and the reasons why this construct is relevant and important. This entry also addresses the issue of causality. Finally, it highlights new research directions that are a current focus of interest.

Nature of EE

EE provides a measure of the family environment. Researchers first began to study EE following observations ...

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