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First of October Antifascist Resistance Group

The First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) is a Spanish leftist terrorist organization founded in the mid-1970s. From the beginning of its existence it has been overshadowed by the larger and more active nationalist Basque Fatherland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna; ETA), and little is known about the group.

The group seems to have originated as the armed wing of the Reconstituted Communist Party, a hardline faction that broke from the Spanish Communist Party in 1968. GRAPO takes its name from date of the revenge killing of four police officers on October 1, 1975; the four were murdered in retaliation for the execution by Francisco Franco's regime of three radical leftists in September 1975. GRAPO advocates a Leninist revolutionary strategy, in which a vanguard of Communist rebels acts as a catalyst for revolution by the working class; in practice, its attacks, inasmuch ...

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