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Most survey samples are selected from a single sampling frame that presumably covers all of the units in the target population. Multiple-frame sampling refers to surveys in which two or more frames are used and independent samples are respectively taken from each of the frames. Inferences about the target population are based on the combined sample data. The method is referred to as dual-frame sampling when the survey uses two frames.

Sampling designs are often dictated by several key factors, including the target population and parameters of interest, the population frame or frames for sampling selection of units, the mode of data collection, inference tools available for analyzing data under the chosen design, and the total cost. There are two major motivations behind the use of ...

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