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A frame is used to identify elements in the population. Elements are the fundamental unit of observation in the survey. A frame may look very different depending on how the population of interest is defined and how its elements are defined. A well-defined appropriate frame is essential to the sampling process, the development of weights for use in analyses of survey data, the minimization of coverage error, and the understanding of what coverage error may exist. This entry describes the basic concept of a frame; the impact it has on sampling, weighting, and coverage; and how it is developed in relation to the survey population and the survey sample. It also discusses several commonly used frames and their specific issues.

A major goal of most surveys ...

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