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A contingency table (or cross-tabulation) is an effective way to show the joined distribution of two variables, that is to say, the distribution of one variable within the different categories of another. Data in the table are organized in rows and columns. Each row corresponds to one category of the first variable (usually considered as the dependent variable), while each column represents one category of the second variable (usually considered as an independent variable). The intersection of a row and a column is called a “cell.” Each cell contains the cases that have a certain combination of attributes corresponding to that row and column (see Table 1). Inside each cell a variety of information can be displayed, including (a) the total count of cases in ...

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