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Gain–Loss Framing

Definition

Gain or loss framing refers to phrasing a statement that describes a choice or outcome in terms of its positive (gain) or negative (loss) features. A message's framing does not alter its meaning. For example, the gain-framed message “One fourth of people will survive the attack” is semantically equivalent to the lossframed message “Three fourths of people will perish in the attack.” Framing does not refer to whether a communicator portrays a choice or outcome as good or bad. Instead, it refers to whether an option or possibility is communicated in terms of its positive or negative consequences.

In one type of gain–loss framing, differentconsequences framing, one states a statistic of the likelihood or quantity of either the positive or the negative outcome. For example, one ...

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