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### Scientific Journal, History of

Scientific books preceded journals and were the chief means of communication among natural philosophers in the 16th century. It is difficult to think of two books more important to science than Andreas Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body) and Nicolaus Copernicus's De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestrium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), both published in 1543. In subsequent centuries, books remained important. The 17th century saw the publication of Robert Hooke's Micrographia (1665) and Isaac Newton's Principia (1687), the 18th century saw Newton's Optics (1704) and Antoine Lavoisier's Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789), the 19th century saw Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology (1830–1833) and Charles Darwin's Origin of the Species (1859), the 20th century saw Theodore Dobzhansky's Genetics and ...