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Four-Level Evaluation Model

The four-level model of training evaluation criteria is a classic framework originally developed by Donald Kirkpatrick for evaluation of organizational training but subsequently extended to many other educational contexts. The four levels in the model are reaction, learning, behavior, and results criteria. Each subsequent level of criteria provides increasingly valued information for evaluation of training effectiveness, yet the difficulty of obtaining information also increases with each subsequent level. In addition to traditional use in business and not-for-profit organizations, Kirkpatrick’s model has been applied to understanding educational effectiveness in schools, colleges, and universities and other contexts such as camps. This entry describes the model and methodological recommendations for evaluation on each level, its applications and modification in organizational contexts, and its applications to various educational contexts.

Kirkpatrick’s ...
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