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Reverse Scoring

A common attitude scaling format, Likert-type scaling, presents a statement and asks respondents to agree or disagree, and scores range from, for example, 1 to 5. Sometimes the same group of statements on a single measure is stated in different “directions.” That is, sometimes a 5 indicates a high level of endorsement of a particular attitude, whereas on other items, a 5 means a low level of endorsement of that attitude. Before responses can be combined into a single meaningful total score, all items must be in the same direction. To accomplish this, the scores for those items that are in an opposite direction are “reversed.” High scores become low scores and low scores become high scores.

Scores are reversed in a straightforward manner that ...

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