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Anger, Hostility and Aggression Assessment

Introduction

Over the last 25 years, interest in measuring the experience, expression, and control of anger has been stimulated by evidence that anger, hostility and aggression were associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (Williams, Barefoot & Shekelle, 1985; Dembroski, MacDougall, Williams & Haney, 1984). While definitions of anger-related constructs are often inconsistent and ambiguous, the experience and expression of anger are typically encompassed in definitions of hostility and aggression. Clearly, anger is the most fundamental of these overlapping constructs.

On the basis of a careful review of the research literature on anger, hostility and aggression, the following definitions of these constructs were proposed by Spielberger et al. (1983: 16):

Anger usually refers to an emotional state that consists of feelings that vary in intensity, from mild irritation or ...

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