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Cognition theory explains the general mechanisms and processes of human thinking. Cognition theories are grounded in the observation that everything people think, say, and do is influenced by mental processes, that is, by the cognitive mechanisms by which humans perceive the world, acquire information, and then process that information to accomplish a wide range of tasks.

Cognition theory blossomed in the second half of the 20th century, inspired by advances in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and information technologies. Different streams of theory emerged, reflecting alternative perspectives on the underlying realities of mental phenomena. One stream is mentalism, which studies the mental representations of the self, others, and the world. Another stream of cognition theory focuses on processes of human thinking, such as reasoning and decision making. A ...

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