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Measures of Entrepreneurial Activity across Countries

The relationship between national culture and entrepreneurship has been explored from a variety of perspectives and using a variety of measurements for entrepreneurship. Much of the research on national culture has been based on Geert Hofstede's work, which examines the cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity. Hofstede defined individualistic societies as “societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family;” defined collectivist societies, by contrast, are “societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.” Masculinity versus femininity refers to differences in emotional roles and values, with masculine values ...

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