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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Consider a study in which a randomized trial is undertaken to compare a control group, an intervention group receiving a standard treatment, and an intervention group receiving a new treatment on a single continuous outcome measure, such as health status. How can it be determined whether there is a statistically significant difference in the mean outcome score among the three groups? The conventional method of analysis for these data is analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA encompasses a broad collection of statistical procedures used to partition variation in a data set into components due to one or more categorical explanatory variables (i.e., factors). The topics covered in this entry are (a) a description of the applications of ANOVA in medical research, (b) a review of the ...

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