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Any decision in medicine is arrived at through a careful process of examining the evidence and deciding what would be the best course of action. There are many parts to this process, including the gathering of evidence that is of as high a quality as possible, the critical examination of this evidence, and a consideration of the interests of all those likely to be affected by the decision.

This entry concentrates on the process of critically examining the evidence and in particular the importance of confidence intervals to this process. Some key concepts will be defined, before discussing what is meant by statistical and clinical significance and then demonstrating the relevance and importance of confidence limits to medical decision making through examples from the literature.

Key Concepts

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