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A reference case is a set of methodological practices intended to enable, by means of standardization, meaningful comparisons of economic evaluation results both within and across different diseases and interventions. Such comparisons are unavoidable if economic analyses are expected to inform healthcare resource allocation decisions.

A reference case may be interpreted as a specific, highly prescriptive variant of a methodological guideline for health economic evaluations. Methodological guidelines have been developed as tools to support the conduct of scientifically consistent economic studies. Informal guidelines developed by academic groups often are differentiated from formalized guidelines issued by official bodies charged with technology appraisals to inform reimbursement and pricing decisions.

Background

In the absence of a standard, analysts were free to make choices, including (but not limited to) the form of ...

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