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All aspects of episodic (information about events) and semantic (knowledge about the world) memory can be influenced by reconstructions based on inferences due to general knowledge or current beliefs, including stereotypical ones. This aspect of memory may serve the once adaptive purpose to keep a consistent and updated model of the world, but it may also lead to memory illusions under certain conditions. Erroneous beliefs about past events may be held with strong confidence, and currently, there is no reliable method that allows one to distinguish true from false memories. In medical decision making, the hindsight bias or “knew it all along” effect may be most relevant. Whenever possible, one should strive for external documentations of current beliefs and decisions to have an external validation ...

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