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In statistics, bias generally refers to a systematic distortion of a statistical result. Bias can occur in both the process of data collection and the statistical procedures of data analysis. Very few studies can avoid bias at some point in sample selection, study conduct, and results interpretation. Analysis of results without correcting the bias can be misleading and harmful in decision making. With careful and prolonged planning, researchers may reduce or eliminate many potential sources of bias. Collaboration between the statistician and the domain expert is very important, since many biases are specific to a given application area. This entry discusses two different aspects that the term bias is commonly used to describe.

Bias in Sampling

Bias in sampling is the tendency that the samples differ from ...

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