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The lens model is a general framework originated by Egon Brunswik (1903–1955) that describes the situation that people face when using multiple items of imperfect information, or cues, to make judgments about an uncertain environment. The cues mediate between the judgment and a distal variable, which is the observation or event that is the object of judgment. There are numerous representations of the lens model in the literature, but all include seven elements: (1) a distal variable that is the focus of judgment; (2) a set of cues, or proximal variables; (3) a judgment about the distal variable, based on the cues; (4) imperfect relations, called cue validities, between the cues and the distal variable; (5) imperfect relations, called cue utilizations, between the cues and ...

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