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A judgment is an opinion as to what was, is, or will be some decision-significant state of the world, where a decision is a commitment to a course of action that is intended to serve the personal interests and values of particular people, for instance, a patient. The “decision-significant” part of the concept rests on two facts. The first is that the content of the judgment at least partly dictates the decision that is reached. The second is that the accuracy of the judgment imposes a ceiling on the extent to which the selected action really does serve the interests and values of the intended beneficiaries. The following are some judgment examples:

  • Was: A pathologist concludes that a patient died of natural causes and therefore ...

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