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The concept of attributable risk (AR) is usually used in public health sciences to quantify the population impact of an exposure on overall disease burden. Such a population impact often has two determining factors: (1) strength of an association between the exposure and the disease and (2) the prevalence of exposure in the population of interest.

When exposure is simply binary, that is, exposed versus unexposed, a prototype measure of AR is defined by the so-called AR fraction:

where Pr{D} is the probability of having a disease for anyone in the population, and Pr{D\Ē} is the probability of having a disease only for those unexposed in the population. From a disease prevention perspective, Pr{D} can also be considered as a measure of overall disease burden on the ...

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