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Risk Analysis and Assessment

  • By: Michael R. Greenberg
  • In: Encyclopedia of Geography
  • Edited by: Barney Warf
  • Subject:General Geography, Earth & Environmental Science

Risk analysis consists of risk assessment and management. Risk assessment combines laboratory and field data with mathematical models, assumptions, and judgments to estimate the likelihood and consequences of human and ecological risks. Risk management uses legal, economic, political, communication, and other social instruments to reduce risk and help those affected to recover from harmful events.

Risk Assessment

Personal, indoor, and outdoor environments contain obvious hazards such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, oil tankers, landfills, and industrial facilities and less apparent ones such as tobacco products, alcohol, drugs, contaminated food, stairs, and slippery sidewalks. Risk assessment is a set of formal processes to estimate the likelihood of danger associated with hazards. Typically, the process is divided into four steps: (1) hazard identification, (2) dose-response assessment, (3) exposure assessment, and ...

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