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International Environmental NGOs

  • By: Hein-Anton van der Heijden
  • In: Encyclopedia of Geography
  • Edited by: Barney Warf
  • Subject:General Geography, Earth & Environmental Science

International environmental NGOs are nongovernmental organizations that, on an international and sometimes global scale, try to influence decision making by governments, corporations, and other social and political organizations, as well as by individual citizens, in order to stop or diminish environmental degradation.

International environmental NGOs can take four different forms, each with their own specific features: (1) international mass membership organizations, (2) national mass membership organizations operating at an international level, (3) international environmental think tanks, and (4) international environmental umbrella organizations. In the following sections, these four categories will be addressed one by one.

International Environmental Mass Membership Organizations

The three most important international mass membership organizations are Greenpeace, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and Friends of the Earth International (FoEI).

Greenpeace

Greenpeace, founded in 1971, is a ...

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