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Coastal Zone and Marine Pollution

  • By: Poh Poh Wong
  • In: Encyclopedia of Geography
  • Edited by: Barney Warf
  • Subject:General Geography, Earth & Environmental Science

The coastal zone is defined as the interface between the land and sea where the land and sea influence each other. Its landward and seaward boundaries are not fixed. If the water depth is extended to 200 meters (m), the waters cover an area of about 7% (26 × 106 square kilometers [km2]) of the surface of the global ocean. This area accounts for at least 15% of oceanic primary production, 80% of organic matter burial, 90% of sedimentary mineralization, 75% to 90% of the oceanic sink of suspended river load, and about 50% of the deposition of calcium carbonate. In addition, 90% of the world fish catch and its overall economic value and at least 40% of the value of the world's ecosystem services ...

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