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Civil litigation, more commonly called a “lawsuit” or “civil action,” describes the formal process of resolving disputes between individuals, businesses, governments, and other groups through the court system. It would most likely translate from its Latin roots as “to carry on a lawsuit between citizens.” Civil litigation is initiated by one party, called the plaintiff, to protect particular personal or property rights (guarantees enforceable under the law) against another party, called the defendant, who allegedly violated said rights in contradiction of a duty. Litigation seeks to enforce rights by obtaining a court order that precludes violation of said right, in the form of an injunction prohibiting such behavior, or by winning a judgment that compensates one for injury to said rights, in the form of ...

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