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The green revolution can refer to any major and innovative change in agricultural productivity, but more commonly the term is used to identify the radical changes in agricultural productivity that occurred in the middle and late decades of the 20th century. Historians sometimes speak of three agricultural revolutions. The first was prehistoric and occurred when humans first established relatively permanent settlements in which domesticated animals and farming replaced hunting and gathering as the primary food production. The second, beginning in the late 18th century, was fueled by advances in mechanical technology, land reform, as well as better understanding of animal breeding and crop rotation. The resulting revolutionary increase in productivity provided food for the exploding urban centers of the Industrial Revolution. In each of these ...

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