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Risks are factors that increase the likelihood of negative child development, behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Risks also reduce the probability of positive child development. In general, the more risks experienced by children, the poorer is their development. Risks can occur at the level of the individual, the family, or the community, but often, they occur at all three levels. Moreover, children and youth who experience risk in one setting are more likely to experience risk in other settings as well. Risks can be distinguished from protective factors, which help insulate children from negative developmental influences. Risks are also distinct from promotive factors, which foster positive development. While practitioners and advocates, as well as researchers, increasingly emphasize positive outcomes and factors that promote positive outcomes, it ...

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